A carbohydrate, such as starch or sugar, is converted by an organism during the metabolic process of fermentation into an alcohol or an acid. For instance, yeast uses fermentation to produce alcohol from sugar in order to get energy. Fermentation is the process through which bacteria turn carbohydrates into lactic acid. “Zymology is the science of fermentation”.
Every type of fermented food is now a significant component of our diet. Due to their alleged health advantages, they are also growing in acceptance. Ever wonder what happens during fermentation and how microorganisms play a part in it? This article briefly overviews fermentation’s historical development before discussing how cutting-edge biotechnologies might enhance the flavor of some of your favorite fermented foods.
The Latin word fervere, meaning “to boil,” is where the word “ferment” originates. Alchemists in the late 14th century spoke about fermentation, although not in the contemporary sense. Around the year 1600, the scientific study of the chemical process of fermentation began.
Fermentation happens naturally. Before the biochemical process was fully understood, people used fermentation to produce goods like wine, meat, cheese, and beer. By proving that fermentation is brought on by live cells in the 1850s and 1860s, Louis Pasteur, a French Chemist became the first zymurgist or scientist to research fermentation. Pasteur tried to extract the enzyme needed for fermentation from yeast cells, but he was unsuccessful.
German scientist Eduard Buechner discovered in 1897 that the liquid he recovered from powdered yeast could ferment a sugar solution.
Examples of Fermentation-Formed Products:
Most people know the foods and drinks that come from fermentation, but they might not be aware that fermentation also produces numerous significant industrial goods.
Using yeast to leaven bread
Some industrial production of alcohol, such as that required for biofuels
Gaseous hydrogen (biogas)